Glossary

ADCC Antibody Dependent Cell-mediated Cytotoxicity - a mechanism of cell-mediated immunity whereby a cell of the immune system actively breaks down a target cell that has been bound by specific antibodies.
biobetter A biosimilar with improved efficacy and a reduced side-effect profile.
biopharmaceutical Medical drugs produced using biomaterials via a biotechnological process.
bioreactor A vessel inside which the conditions are controlled to produce a biologically active environment for the large scale growth of tissue cultures.
biosimilar An officially-approved subsequent version of an innovator's biopharmaceutical product made by a different sponsor following patent and exclusivity expiry on the innovator's product.
cell culture The growth of a collection of cells separate from their organism.
CHO Chinese hamster ovary - cells often used for medical research and commercial production of therapeutic proteins.
CMO Contract manufacturing organization.
culture duration The amount of elapsed time required for a tissue culture to reach the desired levels of production.
E. coli Escherichia coli - a Gram-negative rod-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms.
efficacy The capacity for beneficial change, or therapeutic effect.
expression system The system, often within a cell, which manufactures a protein from a given gene, including all post-translational modifications.
fed-batch A biotechnological batch process which is based on feeding a growth limiting nutrient substrate to a culture.
glycan Oligosaccharide chain.
glycoprotein Protein that contains glycans covalently attached to polypeptide side-chains.
glycosylation The enzymatic process that attaches glycans to proteins, lipids, or other organic molecules.
GMP/GLP Good manufacturing practice and good laboratory practice - these practices are regulatory guidelines.
hybrid A single cell formed by the union of two other cells.
hybridisation The process of creating a hybrid.
IgG Immunoglobulin G.
IgM Immunoglobulin M.
immune system A system of biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease by identifying and killing pathogens and tumor cells.
immunogenicity The ability of a particular substance to provoke an immune response in a human body.
immunology A broad branch of biomedical science that covers the study of all aspects of the immune system in all organisms.
lead clone The first clone from which a tissue culture is grown.
lymphocyte A type of white blood cell in the human immune system.
mAb Monoclonal antibody.
mammalian Of or belonging to the class of mammals.
perfusion A continuous flow of culture medium through a cell culture maintained at high cell density.
polypeptide A single linear polymer chain of amino acids bonded together by peptide bonds.
post-translational modification The chemical modification of a protein after it has been converted from the genetic code to a polypeptide chain (translated).
protein A biochemical compound consisting of one or more polypeptides typically folded into a globular or fibrous form in a biologically functional way.
R & D Research and development.
serum The component of blood that is neither a cell nor a clotting factor.
stability The consistency with which the rate at which a particular protein is produced can be maintained over succeeding generations of a cell line.
susceptibility The extent to which a living organism would suffer from a pathogen if exposed, without regard to the likelihood of exposure.
tissue culture The growth of tissues or cells separate from the organism.
toxicity The degree to which a substance can damage an organism.
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